Basics of Java Language
What is Java?
Java is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Object-oriented programming is a method of solving complex problems by breaking them down into smaller sub-problems. Objects are real-world entities. It’s easier to develop programs using objects. OOP uses classes and objects in a structured way to program.
Class: A class is a template, draft, or prototype that defines the data members and methods of an object. Objects are instances of classes. You can also define a class using the class keyword in a program.
Object: Objects are real-world entities that can be uniquely identified. For example, desks and circles can be considered objects. Objects have their own behaviour, identity, and state. Data fields with current values represent the state (also called properties or attributes) of an object.
Abstraction: Abstraction is a way of hiding irrelevant information from the user. For example, a driver only knows how to drive a car. No need to know how to drive a car. A class can be abstracted using the abstract keyword. In Java language we prefer to use abstract classes and interfaces to achieve abstraction.
Encapsulation: Encapsulation is the process of binding data and functionality into a single entity. Classes are an example of encapsulation. In Java, a Java bean is a fully encapsulated class.
Inheritance: Inheritance is the mechanism by which a class acquires all the characteristics of another class. Inheritance can be achieved using the extend keyword. Makes code reuse easier.
Polymorphism: Polymorphism is an ability that manifests itself in many different ways. So a single action in different ways. For example, a boy behaves like a student in the classroom and like a son at home. There are his two types of polymorphism: run-time polymorphism and compile-time polymorphism.
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